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    In contrast with microtubules 160mg super p-force oral jelly with amex, the microfilament is a thinner type of cytoskeletal filament (see Figure 3 cheap 160 mg super p-force oral jelly with visa. Actin fibers, twisted chains of actin filaments, constitute a large component of muscle tissue and, along with the protein myosin, are responsible for muscle contraction. In muscle cells, these long actin strands, called thin filaments, are “pulled” by thick filaments of the myosin protein to contract the cell. When a cell is about to split in half during cell division, actin filaments work with myosin to create a cleavage furrow that eventually splits the cell down the middle, forming two new cells from the original cell. As its name would suggest, an intermediate filament is a filament intermediate in thickness between the microtubules and microfilaments (see Figure 3. Intermediate filaments are made up of long fibrous subunits of a protein called keratin that are wound together like the threads that compose a rope. Intermediate filaments, in concert with the microtubules, are important for maintaining cell shape and structure. Unlike the microtubules, which resist compression, intermediate filaments resist tension—the forces that pull apart cells. There are many cases in which cells are prone to tension, such as when epithelial cells of the skin are compressed, tugging them in different directions. Intermediate filaments help anchor organelles together within a cell and also link cells to other cells by forming special cell-to-cell junctions. The nucleus is generally considered the control center of the cell because it stores all of the genetic instructions for manufacturing proteins. The nucleus of living cells contains the genetic material that determines the entire structure and function of that cell. The nuclei of the fused cells are conserved in the mature cell, thus imparting a multinucleate characteristic to mature muscle cells. Inside the nucleus lies the blueprint that dictates everything a cell will do and all of the products it will make. This membranous covering consists of two adjacent lipid bilayers with a thin fluid space in between them. Proteins called pore complexes lining the nuclear pores regulate the passage of materials into and out of the nucleus. Inside the nuclear envelope is a gel-like nucleoplasm with solutes that include the building blocks of nucleic acids. There also can be a dark-staining mass often visible under a simple light microscope, called a nucleolus (plural = nucleoli). These proteins are increasingly bundled and condensed into chromatin, which is packed tightly into chromosomes when the cell is ready to divide. Only very few cell types in the body do not divide, including nerve cells, skeletal muscle fibers, and cardiac muscle cells. Epithelial cells of the skin and gastrointestinal lining, for instance, divide very frequently to replace those that are constantly being rubbed off of the surface by friction. The two sides of the 108 Chapter 3 | The Cellular Level of Organization ladder are not identical, but are complementary. These two backbones are bonded to each other across pairs of protruding bases, each bonded pair forming one “rung,” or cross member. Most structural components of the cell are made up, at least in part, by proteins and virtually all the functions that a cell carries out are completed with the help of proteins. One of the most important classes of proteins is enzymes, which help speed up necessary biochemical reactions that take place inside the cell. Gene expression, which transforms the information coded in a gene to a final gene product, ultimately dictates the structure and function of a cell by determining which proteins are made. The sequence of bases in a gene (that is, its sequence of A, T, C, G nucleotides) translates to an amino acid sequence. Therefore, a gene, which is composed of multiple triplets in a unique sequence, provides the code to build an entire protein, with multiple amino acids in the proper sequence (Figure 3. The nucleotide sequence of a gene is ultimately translated into an amino acid sequence of the gene’s corresponding protein. A region at the beginning of the gene called a promoter—a particular sequence of nucleotides—triggers the start of transcription. While there are a few cells in the body that do not undergo cell division (such as gametes, red blood cells, most neurons, and some muscle cells), most somatic cells divide regularly.

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    They are listed as meat alternates in the four-food group chart because they provide one of the better quality plant proteins buy super p-force oral jelly 160 mg on line. Digestion and absorption of protein The digestion of protein in the alimentary tract is accomplished by the action of several proteolytic enzymes in the gastric purchase super p-force oral jelly 160mg on line, pancreatic and intestinal juices. Any of these enzymes that have the power to attack native proteins must be secreted in an inactive form to prevent damage to the tissues where they are formed. Types of enzymes ƒ Pepsinogen is secreted by the gastric juice and activated by the Hydrochloric acid ƒ Trypsinogen is secreted by pancreatic juice and activated by entropeptidase 20 Nutrition ƒ Chemotrypsinogen is secreted by pancreatic juice and activated by the active tripsin ƒ Peptidase intestinal juice Table 3 Summary of protein digestion Site of action Protein Enzyme End – Product Stomach Protein Pepsin in acid Large peptide polypeptides Trypsin chemotrypsin poly peptides Peptidase (secreted Polypeptide by mucosal cells of - Small dipeptides small intestine Polypeptides intestine Dipepetides Amino acids Enter portal blood Liver Peptides Amino acids Body tissues Portal 21 Nutrition The Amino Acid Pool The amino acids from the food or from the body tissues enter a common pool, which is drawn upon for the synthesis of proteins, hormones, enzymes, blood protein and nucleic acids, or some of the amino acids are degraded for energy needs. If carbohydrates and fats are not meeting the energy needs of the body, amino acids can be used to provide energy. Danger of the weaning period The weaning period is fraught with dangers for a large proportion of the world’s children and nutritional disorders are common at this time of life. In the West a general awareness of the nutritional needs of the weanling, together with the ability of the average family to provide the necessary foods, have helped to remove most of the dangers of the weaning period. In the peasant society of developing countries, however, parents are generally are unaware of the dietary needs of children, and several customs associated with weaning are likely to give rise to nutritional deficiencies. There are superstitions and beliefs concerning the effects of another pregnancy on the quality of the breast milk. They also think that the baby in the womb is jealous of the older sibling on the breast. It is therefore considered urgent that the child should be taken off the breast immediately. The mother may apply potions (bitter material) to the nipples so that when the child takes the breast the sharp bitter taste makes him/her give up suckling. The child has very close relationship with the mother, the mother takes him/her back wherever and whenever she goes to fetch water or to bring firewood, the child has also access to breast milk on demand. The child sleeps on her back, but this intimacy will be interrupted when the mother knows that she is pregnant for the subsequent child. This is a psychological blow for the child and causes poor appetite and as the result the child can develop protein energy malnutrition. The diseases occur mostly in children between one and three years of age, after they have been taken of the breast. Therefore, all factors that could possibly contribute to the child malnutrition in general should be avoided. These include: Š Seasonal food shortage Š Unfavorable family condition, Š Inadequate water supply and sanitary facilities, Š Certain traditional attitudes during pregnancy, prenatal period, breast-feeding and weaning periods, and Š All infectious diseases, which generally reduce immunity. Other diseases may sometime play an important role in precipitating the onset of kwashiorkor in already malnourished child. Severe: superficial ulceration, bleeding Hair changes Hair changes are classified into three categories Mild: beginning of visible color and structural changes Moderate: color and structural changes, loss of hair Severe: loss of hair together with ulceration of head Physiological functions of the various systems are markedly disturbed with ƒ Diarrhea ƒ Electrolyte disturbance ƒ Circulatory insufficiency ƒ Metabolic imbalance ƒ Poor renal functions Hence the child with kwashiorkor should be thought of as an emergency in need of referral to the nearest health facility. Child status after discharge from hospital ƒ Mental state has improved as shown by smiling, response to stimuli, awareness, and interest in the surroundings ƒ Appetite has returned and he/she is eating well ƒ Shows physical activity ƒ Temperature is normal ƒ No vomiting or diarrhea ƒ No edema ƒ Starting to gain weight. Lipids ƒ Are the form of stored energy in animals ƒ Have high energy value 9 kcal/gm of fat ƒ Act as carriers for fat soluble vitamins ƒ Are palatable giving good taste and satiety ƒ Serve as insulator preventing heat loss from the body ƒ Lubricate the gastrointestinal tract ƒ Protect the delicate organs such as Kidney, Eyes, heart and the like. Phospholipids, sterols and lipoproteins Phospholipids are structural compounds found in cell membranes. They are essential components of enzyme systems and are involved in the transport of lipids in plasma. Sterols ƒ These are precursors of vitamin D, which are found both in plants and animals. Ergosterol in plants ƒ Lipids are transported in the blood in the form of lipoprotein (soluble fat protein complexes). If blood clots become lodged in the narrowed vessels, the blood flow to the heart or brain many be partially or completely blocked, resulting in a heart attach or stroke”. Cholesterol is a fatlike lipid that normally occurs in the blood and all cell membranes.

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    The medical check up made during pregnancy helps mothers to get advices during pregnancy and post delivery periods 160mg super p-force oral jelly sale. The following are the activities that would be undertaken during first antenatal visit: Registration of age buy super p-force oral jelly 160mg cheap, height, weight, last day of menstruation. Other information that would be collected from the mother are, number of children born, where they were born, previous health problems, information whether she ever taken vaccination or not. After these and other information are collected, and when there are some indications for risks during pregnancy and delivery, the mother should be educated about the need for her to go to the next higher 13 Family Health level of health facility. Unless these illnesses are known on time and the necessary care is taken, the illnesses can lead to life threatening risks. The signs of such illness are the following: - Puffiness/ oedema of the face especially around the eye. When the following signs are observed, the woman should be immediately referred to a health facility since this will lead her to dangerous situations. She needs to regularly and attentively feed herself with cereals, vegetables, fruits, milk, meat, pulses, butter, and cereals with fat contents. If she cannot get these food items, she should be educated on the use of other food items that replace those ones. Regular antenatal follow up It is proposed that there should be: ♦ Nine visits for the healthy nulliparous ♦ Seven visits for the healthy parous Actual visit is – Once per month up to 28 weeks (that is four times) • Twice per week up to 32 weeks (four times) • Then once per week till delivery. Health care providers can also help to detect and manage any warning signs that might occur during pregnancy. Personal hygiene A pregnant woman must keep her personal hygiene more than ever since the body easily gets dirty at this period than at other times; because much waste is disposed as sweat through the body skin. Nevertheless, she should not lift heavy material, should not travel long distance by foot and perform heavy duties. Vaccination against tetanus Tetanus vaccination, given to the pregnant women, will help to prevent the new born from acquiring tetanus. The importance of this vaccine has to be explained to pregnant women and to all women of childbearing age. Pregnant women should eat foods rich in protein (eggs, milk and milk products, Soya bean, beans and lean meats), Calcium (dairy products, green leafy vegetables, fish), iron and folic acid (lean meat, legumes, green leafy vegetables, egg yolk). However, women with certain medical conditions, high-risk pregnancies, or other complications may need to decrease working hours or discontinue working altogether. As long as the job is safe, and does not cause any stress and exhaustion, low-risk pregnant women can continue to work. Job requirements may be modified to allow for less physical workload, frequent breaks, elevation of legs, and frequent position changes. Working pregnant women should learn about their organizations maternity benefits and leave plans, as well as related local and national laws. Women at risk for miscarriage or premature labor should abstain from intercourse and breast stimulation. In addition, pregnant women should continue to use condoms with partners that have Sexually Transmitted Infections. Types of labor • False labor: False labor is labor that is not true especially felt by women with first pregnancy. With false labor, there is no feeling of pushing, no wetting (discharge) and opening of the cervix, In order to know the opening of the cervix, there is a need to do vaginal examination. During true labor, contraction and relaxation of the uterus starts and a force of pushing down is felt by the mother. The health extension worker must know the two types of labor and must be able to provide the necessary delivery assistance when she knows it is true labor. Stages of labor • First stage labor This is labor which lasts from the beginning of a strong contraction of the uterus until the baby drops into the birth canal. First stage labor lasts 10 - 20 hours for women with first birth, 7 - 10 hours for mothers with more than one births. Therefore, the health extension worker should take into account these stages of labor and if the labor at each stage is more than the expected time, she should take her to the next health facility with supervision and assistance. Preparations of the woman for delivery To keep personal hygiene of pregnant women: water, soap and clean cloth should be prepared for washing the legs, the pelvic and genital areas.

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